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Caucasian sperm competition

In this review, we consider the variety of male adaptations to sperm competition MASC that may give rise to sexual conflict—including mate guarding, prolonged copulations, the transfer of large numbers of sperm, and the manipulation of females through nonsperm components of the ejaculate. We then reflect on the fitness economics influencing the escalation of these sexual conflicts, considering the likelihood of females evolving traits to offset the negative effects of MASC when compared with the strong selection on males that lead to MASC. We conclude by discussing the potential evolutionary outcomes of sexual conflict arising from MASC, including the opportunities for females to mitigate conflict costs and the prospects for conflict resolution. Male mate competition can lead to sexual conflict because male traits that increase the chances of securing a mate can reduce female fitness. For example, intense male—male competition for females in yellow dungflies can lead to females drowning in dung Parker a , or the large mandibles used to win male—male competition in Gnathocerus flour beetles reduce female fitness. This occurs via a chain of intra- and intersexual genetic correlations that results in female body morphology deviating from a fitness-optimizing feminine shape Harano et al.
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Sexual Conflict and Sperm Competition

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Sexual Conflict and Sperm Competition

Performed the experiments: SL. The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition by guarding females from rival males or in the engagement in sperm competition by increased expenditure on the ejaculate. The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model.
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Sperm competition

Sarah J. Lehnert, Daniel D. Heath, Robert H. Devlin, Trevor E. Post-copulatory processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice CFC , can play important roles in the maintenance of polymorphisms.
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Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg [1] during sexual reproduction. Competition can occur when females have multiple potential mating partners. Greater choice and variety of mates increases a female's chance to produce more viable offspring.
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